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Antiguo 22-Sep-2004, 15:46   #1
THOR


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Predeterminado LA PROTEINA (articulo en ingles)

Aqui os pego este articulo que ha encontrado Vampire en unos foros:

PROTEIN
By L.Rea

Protein is the most under rated (and necessary) anabolic substance legally available anywhere. How important is it to bodybuilders and athletes? About 10% of your body's total protein is contained in skin while muscle contains about 50% of your body's total protein. The rest is contained in organs, enzymes, circulatory, etc. Protein is made up of building blocks called amino acids. Amino acids are large molecules containing carbon, nitrogen, hydrogen and oxygen. Some amino acids include other organic chemicals in their compound such as phosphorus, copper, iodine, and sulfur. Basically speaking, this means that proteins are complex structures and each protein structure is an assembly of amino acids and other organic chemicals. Amino acids are linked together by peptides, some of which are the body's vital nitrogenic compounds. For instance, Growth Hormone, Insulin, and Insulin-Like- Growth-Factor-1 are specific sequences of amino acids. Proteins are either complete or incomplete. Complete protein simply means that it contains at least the minimal amounts of amino acids to sustain life. Which of course under lines the fact that a high protein "content" does not necessarily mean a high quality protein. It is the essential amino acid pattern and ratio that counts most. The essential amino acids are L-Leucine, L-Isoleucine, L-Valine, (These three are branch chain amino acids or BCAA'S ) L-Lysine, L-Threonine, L-Methionine, L-Phenylalanine, and LTryptophan. The body can not make essential amino acids from others. Non-essential amino acids are: L-Alanine, L-Arginine, Aspartic Acid, Glutamic
Acid, L-Cystine, L-Glycine, L-Histidine, L-Proline, L-Serine, L-Tyrosine, and LGlutamine. Non-essential amino acids can be made from other in the body's amino acid pool.
A note of interest: It is very difficult to get enough Glutamine and Arginine from normal diets. A hard training athlete should consume 20-100 G of Glutamine and 5G of a Arginine daily.
Protein digestion starts in the mouth and continues in your stomach and small intestines. This is due to pepsin, which is secreted in the saliva and obviously the gastric juice, followed by pancreatic enzymes, then absorbed by the mucosal cells in the small intestines. In short, the digestive system breaks down protein into its peptide amino acid structures so they can be absorbed in the small intestine via the mucosal cells. When protein/amino acids enter the small intestines and transverse the
mucosal membranes, they enter the circulatory system. From the there the amino acids enter the liver through the portal vein. Your liver decides amino acid intake, as well as
the amount of assimilated amino acids your body can use to build- up muscle tissue. This is a major function of most anabolic chemistry. AAS increase the amount of amino acids passed into the blood stream to muscle tissue for growth and repair. Which of course means AAS are protein sparing in this respect as well. Duh!
Your liver is also a site for amino acid synthesis such as Serine, Glycine, Glutamic acid and Glutamine. This means that the liver will hang on to some amino acids for bio-synthesis while passing others onto the general circulation for transportation to
other organs and tissue. I had a client whom thought Anadrol-50 was candy. He had damaged his liver enzymic process to a point where synthesis of Glutamine was quite poor. Since Glutamine makes up 50-70% of total muscle amino acid pools, and is used to repair and replace the stomach lining every few days, growth stopped. Your body has no long-term storage system for protein as it does for carbs and fats. The liver and circulatory system stores amino acids for a very short term, while muscle mass serves as the largest "temporary" store house of free amino acids. Maintaining these amino acid stores requires eating/drinking complete proteins every 2.5- 3 hours. If not, then when your organs and muscle tissue can not get what they need from circulation, the muscle is catabolized. 2 steps forward and one step back makes for poor progress. Remember, the body can also convert branch chain amino acids into glucose/glycogen for energy. Complete protein sources area must for all, and even more so for those seeking increased mass and strength and fewer injuries. Good examples are lean red meat, lamb,
fish, poultry, cheese, eggs, and milk. A mixture of complete sources is best. This is simple logic. Earlier I said a complete protein contains at least the "minimal" amount of amino acids to sustain life. The operative word is "minimal" here. If your amino acid pool is short on any one essential amino acid, then the whole muscle building process is compromised. This is why total veggie diets make no sense for athletes. Vegetable sources of protein are not complete, though various combinations do make up complete sources. Still, for serious muscle mass, the necessary volume of food with a veggie diet would be far too much for most to consume daily. How much protein? The American recommended daily intake for protein is for couch potatoes. They really do not tear down enough protein based tissue to need much more than 60 grams daily. But really, you probably do not care about couch jockey facts if you are reading this book! With most of my clients, I have utilized a minimum of 1 GM of protein per LB of bodyweight per day. Note I said "minimum". Muscle is protein, training and stress breaks it down, supraphysiological levels of protein repair and increase growth of muscle tissue. Simple. If you have read a muscle magazine in the last decade, you have read about nitrogen balance. If you are in negative nitrogen balance,
you are catabolizing muscle; if you are in positive nitrogen balance, you are in an anabolic state, or tissue growth state. Protein supplies nitrogen. Any mystery so far? More protein, means more nitrogen retention, means more muscle… to a point. New clients are required to write down everything they eat and drink for 10 days. Their protein sources, amounts, and timing is evaluated. Also carbs and fats to the same extent of course. More on that later. Once a base line is established, I begin increasing only protein intake about 50 GM per day until they begin to add adipose (fat) tissue. Then re-evaluate carb and fat sources. For "most" serious athletes, this is somewhere around 1.5-2.5 GMS of protein per LB of bodyweight with a total calorie intake of 18-20 calories per LB of bodyweight. This calorie count (18-20 calories per LB of bodyweight) is for adding mass.
There is a truism athletes face often without realizing it. You are what you absorb, not just what you eat. When you eat whole /complete protein source food such as round
steak, your teeth grind up the fibers into smaller pieces. If you do not chew your food, digestive enzymes /juices fail to access enough area of these fibers to fully break them down. Less area exposed, less digestion, less amino acids to supply growth and repair. Since one of the functions of protein synthesis is to manufacture digestive enzymes, unchewed food causes a drop in protein digestion and ultimately….retardation of growth.
I experienced difficulty eating enough whole/complete protein foods some years back simply because I felt full too easily when eating large amounts day in and day out. Speaking to clients and answering letters, I found many hard gainers shared this growth
limiting problem. High tech solution! Small fibers digest easier than large. Enter "The NUTRITION
Blender Solution". Try: 6 oz tuna, 1 oz whey protein, 8 oz diet coke. Ya, it sounds bad but actually they taste pretty good and it supplies 60 GMS of protein. Our bodies utilize proteins in many ways. Repair, a source of energy, and even as raw materials for hormones and anti-oxidants. With all this going on, it's no wonder why hard training athletes need more protein than the average couch potato. Most lean meats such as round and flank beef steak, fish, lamb, and pork, supply 6-7 G of complete protein per ounce. A 200 LB bodybuilder consuming 2G of protein per
pound of bodyweight daily would therefore need to eat about 4 pounds of lean meats daily. Wow! That is a lot of chewing and a nice chunk of change. Enter protein powders. When it comes to protein supplements, there is a great deal of confusion. This is
mostly due to muscle magazine articles that are actually ads to sell specific brands, and high tech terms leading to misdirection and profit. The ads all sound scientific and even
include medical references. However, many are misleading.
(BV) Biological Value is a common term. It is actually an attempt to measure how efficiently the body utilizes a certain protein. BV is a scientific method that measures nitrogen uptake - vs.- nitrogen excretion from a given amount/type of protein. I
realize this is simplified to many researchers, but I am writing practical info not a research paper. The BV of whey protein is commonly listed as 104. This is off actually because 100 is the maximum BV possible. The extra 4% is a calculation that represents a margin of error. BV is not a universally accepted measure for protein quality. This is mostly due to the fact that BV tests are always performed on subjects in a fasted state.
This affects nitrogen uptake differently than if subjects were in a fed state (Like most bodybuilders don't eat constantly?). Simply stated, not eating significantly alters the way the body absorbs nitrogen from protein. How often have you seen a BV of 159? This was an author who confused the difference between BV and chemical score. Chemical score involves measuring amino acid activity in the body, not retention and loss. Again, since
the highest BV score is 100, the 159 BV is a bit stretched. But hey, it sounds good huh? Ultrafiltration is a French originated process that uses a membrane filtering system. In its raw form, whey contains protein, lactose, ash, and some minerals. This
should not surprise anyone since whey is the bi-product of cheese or casein production from milk. The original ultrafiltration method separated the ash and lactose from the whey protein resulting in a product providing about 35-70% protein. As the process improved the protein, content was elevated to up to 80% -86.5% protein content. Ultrafiltration provides a decent product with many useful protein fractions. Though ultrafiltration produces a lower protein content compared to ion-exchange and contains slightly higher fat and lactose levels, it is usually
the better way. It contains more lactoferrin, proteasepeptone, and glyromacropeptides. Ion-exchange revolves around ion properties. (What?) Simply put, ions have positive and negative charges. The process involves a resin that isolates the protein
material from whey, and adjustments in PH (acidity level), initially. Then the use of ultrafiltration methods that further concenttrated the protein were included. Bipro patented this process and called it whey protein isolate. This new technique has the unique quality of providing 90% protein and less than 1% lactose. Later Davisco bought and continued to produce Bipro. Sounds great but there are some problems with whey isolates. Whey isolate contains as much as 70% beta-lactabumin which is a much higher
percentage than found naturally in cows milk and significantly different than the alfalactabumin. The reason this is significant is due to the fact that beta-lactoglobulin is much more allergenic to humans than alfa- lactoglobulin. Another problem with ion-exchange whey isolate is that the process does not favor the retention of vital smaller whey protein factions such as lactoferrin that have considerable health benefits. Human milk contains
up to 17% lactoferrin, where as cows milk contains about 1%. It seems obvious nature intended lactoferrin to be high for human needs. However, the good news is that several companies are now happy to sell to you whey protein isolates that have had the original lactoferrin mixed back into their product (for another fee of course). Lactalbumin is an often misused synonym for whey protein. In the supplemental protein industry, lactalbumin is a reference to whey protein that has been manufactured
by a heat and acid process. Since heat and acid both denature vital protein fractions (broken a part = denature), and lactalbumin is a high heat process, the product retains few of its original bodybuilding qualities. It also contains above normal levels of betalactoglobulin. Biological activity sucks. Fat content in whey protein products is quite deceptive. What is listed on the
label is only free fat. This is fat that is not bound to the whey protein structure. The reason for this is simple. To test whey for total fat content, acid hydrolysis would be necessary. Normally whey protein fat content is tested utilizing an ether extract method. This results in a much lower fat content that "sounds" great. The fat bound in the whey protein structure is higher in cholesterol and saturated fat than normal cows milk. But in
truth, for every 50 G of milk derived protein the cholesterol content will usually be 50-75 milligrams. In 20 G of whey protein concentrate, the cholesterol level will most likely be 50 MG or higher. Sad since the lie is actually a benefit. You see, included in the fat globule membrane of whey or milk are growth factors such as IGF-1. Take out the fat and lose the growth factors.
Mother's milk is an often coined term for products that mimic the natural mother's milk contents. Actual human mother's milk contains about 40-50% casein and 50-60% whey, and about 17% lactoferrin with no beta-lactoglobulin. As I said earlier,
mother's milk contains alfa lactoglobulin. This is very different from cow's milk which contains about 80% casein and 20% whey with 1% lactoferrin being average. Lactoferrin has anti-viral activity, and is a potent immune system booster. Obviously this is an advantage for new born human (rug rats) since they lack complete immune system functions. Remember the fact that human mother's milk dominant protein fraction is alfalactalbumin?
Well, there is a research project on going which claims acid folded alfa lactabumin and lactoferrin have the ability to kill all cancer cells. Gee, wonder where my next research project might be? Anyway, lactoferrin has been shown in some studies to
speed healthy tissue re-growth. Yes, anabolic. For the reason of high expense for purified lactoferrin and the high beta-lactoglobulin content in cows milk, a mother's milk
supplement is just not possible for commercial sales. But the ratios of casein and whey can be duplicated. Since cows milk is 20% whey and 80% casein and commercial milk protein contains this ratio, the additional whey protein is simply mixed either by a
manufacturer or by you at home. For those of you who hate math, simply mix 1 pound of casein protein with 1 pound whey protein to achieve the basic 50/50 ratio of mother's
milk. Glutamine makes up about half of the body's amino acid pool. Gee, do you think this amino acid maybe important? Hard training athletes should consume 15-25 G of
glutamine daily in 3-8 divided dosages. Can you get enough glutamine from protein powders? That depends. I am looking at a bottle of whey protein while I write this. On the front label it states (proudly) "over 2 grams of glutamine per 50 gram serving", like they did some high tech mixture. Whey protein naturally contains about 6% peptide
bonded glutamine. So about 6 G per 100 G of protein. Where did my other gram of glutamine go? The other milk protein, casein, contains 8-10 percent glutamine. Peptide bonded glutamine refers to glutamine that is bonded to at least one other amino acid by a peptide bond (ya, protein s & m) which is also referred to as a peptide chain. Bonded amino acids are always superior to free of "L" forms since free or "L" are very unstable in the presence of heat, water, or PH changes. Since peptide glutamine is much more stable, it is more resistant to hostile environments such as the stomach. Peptide amino acids are also absorbed much more efficiently. For example, peptide glutamine is absorbed as much as 10 times more efficiently than L-Glutamine. Beware when a product label reads 5 or 10 G of peptide bonded glutamine per serving. Since the weight of a peptide differs
depending on how many other amino acids are in each peptide chain. So yes, if you ingest enough protein powder daily, you could get enough glutamine. Just drink a pound
of whey concentrate daily like I do. Or not! Micellar casein is native milk casein protein. It differs from caseinate in that it is
not made by adjusting the acidic PH value more toward neutral by using an alkali. Native micellar casein contains several biologically active peptide sequences that are health and
growth promoting for athletes. Casein protein is digested and absorbed more slowly than whey proteins. In fact plasma amino acid levels are prolonged from casein ingestion resulting in a distinct anti-catabolic effect. Whereas whey protein is quickly digested and can cause a supraphysiological plasma amino acid level (anabolic), casein can protect against muscle protein loss. The main problem with whey protein being so rapidly absorbed is that much of it can be shuttled to the liver where the amino acids can be oxidized for energy needs rather than muscle proteins synthesis. This would be advantages during dieting phases, but not during mass gaining protocols. So do you buy whey, casein, both, or what? Quick absorption can be a problem with hydrolyzed (predigested) proteins as well since they rapidly pass through the stomach into the intestines. NUTRITION
Protein sources really are not that hard to deal with. Assuming you are a serious athlete, you ingest 1-2 G of protein daily per pound of bodyweight. If you weigh 200 LBS, that would be 200-400 G daily. The best protocol would utilize breaking this into at
least 4 meals, with 6-8 being better. This allows for a continuous supply of amino acids from protein to sustain growth and repair while reducing catabolism. Using 400 G of protein daily as an example, 200 G would come from lean meats, fish, eggs, and dairy
products. The other 200 G would come from a good quality rotein powder. If you are eating all these slow digesting whole complete proteins from meat, fish, eggs, and dairy products, casein just is not as good as whey, nor is it necessary. If you ingest better than 60% of your daily protein from protein powders, a mixture of 50% casein and 50% whey
concentrate would be best. Mixing one ounce of whey with 16 oz. of low fat milk works pretty well also. Tuna milk shakes are still the better choice if you have the stomach for them. Really! Each meal or shake should provide 30-60 G of protein. As to the body not being able to handle more than 30 G of protein at one time? I searched everywhere for any legit research to support this skinny persons belief. Nope, none, no where. I will keep looking!
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